Dimensions[ edit ] Hadrian’s Wall was 80 Roman miles or East of the River Irthing , the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 metres 10 feet wide and 5 to 6 metres 16 to 20 feet high, while west of the river the wall was originally made from turf and measured 6 metres 20 feet wide and 3. These dimensions do not include the wall’s ditches, berms and forts. The central section measured eight Roman feet wide 7. Immediately south of the wall, a large ditch was dug, with adjoining parallel mounds, one on either side. This is known today as the Vallum , even though the word Vallum in Latin is the origin of the English word wall, and does not refer to a ditch. In many places — for example Limestone Corner — the Vallum is better preserved than the wall, which has been robbed of much of its stone. Route[ edit ] Route of Hadrian’s Wall Sections of Hadrian’s Wall remain along the route, though much has been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects. Hadrian’s Wall extended west from Segedunum at Wallsend on the River Tyne , via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden , to the shore of the Solway Firth , ending a short but unknown distance west of the village of Bowness-on-Solway.
Towards the end of the decade, as cost consciousness of consumers took over, the use of these materials tapered off. The rising energy costs which hit the world in the s pushed consumers to save energy, and washwater temperatures began to decline. But as wash temperatures declined, their use in laundry products disappeared. Another impact of rising energy costs was an effort by detergent manufacturers to reduce the energy input in production.
The effort evolved and, in , detergents were revolutionised by the introduction of the laundry detergent Attack by Kao Soap in Japan. Various production systems evolved, which agglomerated detergent ingredients in high-speed mixers.
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Sources[ edit ] Section of Trajan’s Column , Rome, showing the spiral friezes that represent the best surviving evidence of the equipment of imperial Roman soldiers Surviving fragment of a Roman military diploma found at Carnuntum in the province of Noricum Austria Specimen Vindolanda tablets Except for the early 1st century, the literary evidence for the Principate period is surprisingly thin, due to the loss of a large number of contemporary historical works.
From the point of view of the imperial army, the most useful sources are: Strictly speaking, these wars pre-date the army’s imperial period which started in 30 BC , but Caesar’s detailed accounts are close enough in time to provide a wealth of information about organisation and tactics still relevant to the imperial legions. Secondly, works by the imperial-era historian Tacitus , writing around AD Even this suffers from large gaps, amounting to about a third of the original; the Historiae was the sequel to the Annales, bringing the chronicle up to the death of Domitian AD 96 , of which only the first part, a detailed account of the Civil War of survives; and the Agricola , a biography of Tacitus’ own father-in-law, Gnaeus Julius Agricola , who as governor of Britain AD attempted to subjugate Caledonia Scotland to Roman rule.
The third important literary source is De Re Militari , a treatise on Roman military practices by Vegetius , written c. This contains much useful material relating to the Principate period, but the author’s statements are undated and sometimes unreliable. But most Roman historians present only a very limited picture of the imperial army’s affairs, as they describe only military campaigns and say little about the army’s organisation, logistics and the daily lives of the troops.
Fortunately, the thin and fragmentary literary evidence has been complemented by a vast mass of inscription and archaeological evidence.
This newcomer in the brick colony is conceded to be one of the finest brickmaking establishments on the picturesque Hudson, famed as the head-center of the industry in this quarter of the globe. All that goes to make a location desirable is found at Newton Hook in great liberality–pure sand in illimitable quantity, hills of clay that literally can never be exhausted and a small mountain of the best shale that the state of New York can boast. In addition to these admirable resources are the unequalled means of transportation afforded by the New York Central railroad on the one hand and the waterway of the world on the other.
Of equal importance with location are the up-to-date labor-saving devices that have been incorporated in the new plant. Newton Hook was formerly Coxsackie Station, but the name was changed recently, partly because it was too frequently confused with the town of Coxsackie on the west shore of the river, and partly because the topography makes it appropriate, for a hook-shaped peninsula juts into the river at that point.
Sep 01, · This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes.
Peters is a frequent contributor to the media on questions regarding the presidency and has appeared as a guest on Voice of America, National Public Radio, and the BBC. He was a coauthor with Deborah Kalb and John T. Woolley is a professor of political science and department chair at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Along with Gerhard Peters, he was a coauthor in State of the Union: About the Book The Presidency A to Z is part of CQ Press’s five-volume American Government A to Z series, which provides essential information about the history, powers, and operations of the three branches of government, the election of members of Congress and the president, and the nation’s most important document, the Constitution.
In these volumes, CQ Press’s writers and editors present engaging insight and analysis about U. The series is useful to anyone who has an interest in national government and politics. The Presidency A to Z offers accessible information about the historical foundations of the American presidency, the institution’s development over time, the organization of the executive branch, presidential elections, the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, and the lives of presidents and vice presidents.
The volume also includes a detailed index, reference materials about presidential backgrounds, elections, and cabinet members, and a bibliography.
The Moselle and Rhine Rivers: Gallo-Roman life Posted on Sep 28, in category After a lonely hike through the German forests and mountains that separate the Rhine from the Moselle, Ausonius, an early 4th century AD poet from the Gallo-Roman region of Bordeaux, was overwhelmed when he first sighted the Mosella or Moselle River: Evelyn-White’s, Ausonius London , p. Ausonius describes ‘two modes of voyaging’ in the cargo ships: Furthermore, he paints a picture of a steep river valley with many “country houses” or villas “perched high upon the overhanging river banks”.
Now docked at Neumagen on the Moselle since the year , this wooden replica of a Gallo-Roman warship, which doubled as a cargo ship along the Moselle, is based mainly on stone funerary monuments excavated between from foundations of the Roman Neumagen fort.
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Places and geographical objects on the map of Hesse. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt am Main. Due to divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover the entire cultural region of Hesse which includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse Rheinhessen in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated paragraphs 1.
An inhabitant of Hesse is called a Hessian German: Hesse masculine or Hessin feminine. The synthetic element hassium, number on the periodic table, is named after the state of Hesse.
Castra Batava] Passau II: The Alpine Forelands lie south of the Granite Plateau. Gypsy camp in Burgenland S of Vienna near Hungary.
The grain-size index GSI: The sedimentation rate, interpreted from the profiles, indicates high values in loess Loess events LE-1 to LE-7 and low or negligible values in tundra gley horizons G1 to G8. OSL ages from the loess and 14C dates from organic matter in the loess show that loess deposition was rapid but was interrupted by shorter periods of reduced aeolian sedimentation. Correlation between the loess GSI and the Greenland ice-core dust records, suggests a global connection between North Atlantic and Western European global atmospheric circulation and wind regimes.
Correlation of magnetic susceptibility and grain-size records shows that the periods, characterised by high GSI, coincide with an increase in the amount of ferromagnetic minerals reworked from the Rhine alluvial plain. They suggest enhancement in the frequency of the storms from N—NW. These results are integrated within a palaeogeographical model of dust transport and deposition in Western Europe for the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial or Late Pleniglacial.
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Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes.
There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.
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He was able to give the impression that the Nazi movement was huge and unstoppable. The Nazis would saturate campaigning in certain districts for a week, especially in areas where there was likely to be a breakthrough. Through this first basic propaganda element, the NSDAP was able to gain national attention, while leaving the other parties in their shadows.
The image shows the streets lined by Germans, while the SA, marches in perfect precision down the middle of the street, being led by the National Socialist flag. The image is taken from the air heightening the awe of the viewer in sighting the unending line of both Nazis and their supporters. One problem residents had faced was hyperinflation. When the war ended in , the exchange rate for the U. By January the exchange was By January the exchange was 17, marks and finally by December the exchange rate was 4.
This instability made waves in society allowing the extremist party of National Socialism to take root. Included was the union of Greater Germany based on self-determination, abolition of the Treaty of Versailles, formation of a national army, and tight control of the national press for the national welfare.
Kein Jude kann daher Volksgenosse sein. Only members of the German nation may be citizens of the State.